The airplane traffic at the Athens International Airport towards its 2 air-corridors (eastern and western) is regulated through 4 roundabout loops, 2 for each corridor. Due to the traffic load, the fact that the heavy aircrafts often have to stop at the loops and the type of the pavement, the tarmac at those 4 areas has developed noticeable deformations. So, the technical department of the A.I.A., in order to define the extent of the damage and decide what kind of corrective actions should be taken (from simple tarmac repairs to full pavement reconstruction), requested a detailed 3D modeling of the tarmac surface, followed by a complete deformation analysis. The methodology should combine a high level of detail (measurement every 2-3 cm), speed (each loop could remain closed only for a few hours) and accuracy (<1cm for elevations).
Laser scanning has proven to be not only the most effective method for the project’s purposes, but in fact the only one applicable, offering the required resolution / level of detail and accuracy at a speed that was acceptable for the airports restrictions.
The Greek Railway Organization main railroad, to its northern exit from Athens, passes through a tunnel complex, consisting of four tunnels (two for each railway line), near the small city of Aghios Stefanos. The NE tunnel, approximately 200m long and 5m wide, was built from stones about 50 years ago. Due to suspected deformations of this tunnel in combination with known geological problems of the whole area, the Greek Railway Organizations ordered a stability check, along with a complete survey of the tunnel and the superjacent ground.
The cross-section based evaluation and comparison of the surveyed tunnel wall to its theoretical geometry revealed large deformations at specific locations (e.g. section 15). These locations have been defined and mapped in detail and repairing actions have been designed. Tunnel has been closed until repair works will be executed. Further geological investigation defined the reason of the deformations to be the presence of slate (sch) and clay (PT) formations at the tunnel’s area and the existence of a possible fault between them.
The “Specialisation Process for the Ecoengineering Sector in the Mediterranean Environment (ECOMED)” project is an initiative to advance the specialization process on landscape bioengineering, and to generate new alliances and dynamics in the sector, within the Mediterranean region. Its specific objectives are:
So, the EcoMed project will enhance bioengineering works at the different stages and phases: design/calculation, implementation/construction, monitoring, and education/training. This will be accomplished by implementing applied research works from 2017 till 2018. These works include the selection of a set of bioengineering tools and projects within the European Mediterranean region to further study and analyze them.
This project that is co-funded by the ERASMUS + Programme of the European Union will generate new tools to improve the possibilities of intervening in the landscape through techniques and approaches of bioengineering, taking into account the particularities of the Mediterranean region.
Overall the consortium comprises of seven universities and seven companies distributed in eight countries throughout the European region with Universidad Politecnica de Madrid the coordinator. Astrolabe Engineering is among the 14 consortium partners.
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The project was assigned by the Maintenance Department of the Greek Ministry of Infrastructures, Transports and Networks in order to improve safety for high accident risk locations (mainly road junctions) all over the Greek road network and, in particular, to design and evaluate through video simulations the appropriate improvement interventions for these locations.
Laser scanning has proven to be not only a fast data capture tool to provide accurate and complete survey background data for road design purposes, but also an easy and efficient way of creating “before / existing” and “after / as designed” colored video fly-through and driving simulations to easily compare and evaluate the efficiency of designed – proposed interventions, before their actual implementation.
Close to the city of Thessaloniki, in Northern Greece, the Patras – Athens – Thessaloniki – Evzoni (P.A.TH.E.) Motorway, which is the main from South to North road transport axis of Greece, crosses the Axios river, one of the largest of the wider Balkan area. The crossing occurs with two long bridges, each carrying one carriageway. The southern bridge was constructed first about 40 years ago, while the northern one is much newer.
The southern bridge is 780 m long with 25 spans, built from armed concrete and has begun to show noticeable damages through time. The Greek Ministry of Environment, Planning and Public works assigned a project to check the bridges efficiency. Within the frame of this project, a complete 3D survey and deformation analysis was required.
To better evaluate the 3D deformations of the bridge components, the results were presented as a longitudinal section of all examined deck edges, as well as angular measurements for each pier along the 3 axis, to demonstrate possible pier rotation. The evaluation showed insignificant rotations for the piers, but surprisingly revealed considerable subsidence of all piers, except those which were founded in the river’s bottom. Different type of foundation was identified as the most possible cause for this problem. Corrective actions are being studied to prevent further damage and deformation of the bridge’s structure.